妇女在工作场所的力量和谈判

作者: 卡桑德拉·伯德(Kassandra Burd),SCWIST内容创建者

The gender pay gap is an ongoing issue that has affected women not only in Canada, but on a global scale.性别薪酬差距是一个持续存在的问题,不仅影响了加拿大妇女,而且影响了全球妇女。 It would be safe to say that societal systemic issues within many career fields, including STEM fields, are to blame for the clear discrepancy, however, it is also important to consider the notion that “bargain effectiveness” also plays a role (Women on Purpose, 2019).可以肯定地说,许多职业领域(包括STEM领域)中的社会系统性问题应归咎于明显的差异,但是,考虑“讨价还价有效性”也起一定作用的观念也很重要(“有目的的女性” ,XNUMX)。 First, what needs to change is the obvious discriminatory, sexist practices that the system perpetuates and allows to remain unchanged.首先,需要改变的是系统永久存在并允许其保持不变的明显的歧视性,性别歧视做法。 Second, it is crucial that women become comfortable with making their voices heard and demanding change.其次,至关重要的是,让女性适应自己的声音并要求改变。 Unjust structural practices in society puts the pressure on women to demand the pay that they deserve in order to meet the same earnings as their male colleagues.社会上不公正的结构性做法给妇女施加了压力,要求她们获得应得的薪水,以便获得与男同事相同的收入。 While negotiation should be an easy feat for women, it often takes persistence and continuous pressure placed on those in authority to meet those demands.尽管谈判对妇女来说是一项容易的壮举,但要满足这些要求,往往需要持之以恒并不断施加压力。 The fact that these inequitable practices are still rampant today illustrates just how much further society needs to advance in order to eliminate the gender pay gap altogether.这些不平等做法今天仍然猖ramp的事实说明,社会需要进一步发展才能彻底消除性别工资差距。 To arrive at this point, we need to see a systemic transformation while also encouraging salary negotiations between women and people in power, which are necessary to implement change and eliminate existing barriers.为了达到这一点,我们需要看到系统的转变,同时也要鼓励妇女与当权者之间的薪资谈判,这对于实施变革和消除现有障碍是必不可少的。

Generally, women make approximately 82 cents for every dollar earned by their male colleagues (Valentine, 2012).一般而言,女性与男性同事每挣14美元,大约可赚21美分(Valentine,77年)。 While the pay gap in STEM fields might not be as high due to the fact that the gap is at 2012% versus 88% in non-STEM fields, there is still a noticeable difference between profits earned by men and women.尽管由于STEM领域的工资差距仅为2012%,而非STEM领域的工资差距为4,000%,所以工资差距可能不会那么大,但男女所得的利润仍然存在明显差异。 For instance, female computer and information technology majors earned only 2012% of the salary that their male colleagues earned one year after graduation (Valentine, XNUMX).例如,计算机和信息技术专业的女学生仅获得其男同事毕业一年后薪水的XNUMX%(Valentine,XNUMX年)。 Furthermore, female engineering majors earned only XNUMX% of men's salaries.此外,工科专业的女性仅赚取男性工资的XNUMX%。 Evidently, the gender pay gap is still a problem in STEM, and deserves more attention.显然,性别工资差距仍然是STEM中的问题,值得更多关注。 Bias against women in STEM fields is not uncommon;在STEM领域对妇女的偏见并不少见。 according to a study at Yale, science faculty considered an applicant with a male name as being more competent and hireable than somebody with a female name, even though the applications were identical (Moss-Racusin et al., XNUMX).根据耶鲁大学的一项研究,尽管申请是相同的,但科学院认为具有男性名字的申请人比具有女性名字的人更胜任和受聘(Moss-Racusin et al。,XNUMX)。 Moreover, the faculty were more willing to provide $XNUMX more to the male applicant, while also assigning career mentors to the male over the female (Moss-Racusin et al., XNUMX).此外,教师更愿意为男性申请者提供XNUMX美元,同时也将职业指导者分配给男性而不是女性(Moss-Racusin等人,XNUMX)。 It is important to note that the faculty consisted of both men and women, to which gender did not affect responses;重要的是要注意,该学院由男女组成,性别不影响其反应; this shows that there is even bias amongst women when determining value of female applicants.这表明在确定女性申请人的价值时女性之间甚至存在偏见。

STEM薪资的差异主要归因于偏见和男女谈判方式的不同。 Typically, men might be more likely to negotiate because society teaches them to be competitive and assertive, while society often teaches women to avoid conflict and put others' needs ahead of their own (Women on Purpose, 2019).通常,男人可能更有可能进行谈判,因为社会教会他们要有竞争力和自信,而社会经常教会女人要避免冲突并将他人的需求置于自己的前面(Women on Purpose,2018)。 When a job posting is ambiguous with salary negotiation, women are more likely to accept the starting salary, while men are not (Artz et al., 2018).当职位发布与薪资谈判不明确时,女性更有可能接受起薪,而男性则没有(Artz et al。,15)。 However, it is also true that when women do negotiate their salaries and ask for a raise, they are less likely to receive that raise compared to men (Artz et al., 20).然而,当女性确实谈判工资并要求加薪时,与男性相比,她们获得加薪的可能性也较小(Artz等人,2018)。 According to a Harvard study, when women asked for a raise, they received it 2019% of the time, while men did so 2019% of the time (Artz et al., 2020).根据哈佛大学的一项研究,当女性要求加薪时,她们有2020%的时间得到加薪,而男性则有XNUMX%的时间得到加薪(Artz等,XNUMX)。 The difference doesn't appear significant, but over time, the magnification of women who are not receiving the same treatment as their male counterparts becomes more discernable.差别似乎并不明显,但是随着时间的流逝,未与男性同等对待的女性的放大率变得更加明显。 As a Black woman, the discrepancy is even more pronounced.作为黑人妇女,这种差异更加明显。 According to a XNUMX study by the American Psychological Association, no matter how much time was spent on interview preparation, racial bias can reduce the offer received (Hernandez et al., XNUMX).根据美国心理学会(American Psychological Association)于XNUMX年进行的一项研究,无论面试准备花了多少时间,种族偏见都会减少收到的要约(Hernandez等人,XNUMX)。 Morela Hernandez is a business professor at the University of Virginia, who states that “Racially biased hiring managers often see Black job seekers as less deserving of higher monetary awards and take issue when they ask for more money (Oliver, XNUMX).莫雷拉·埃尔南德斯(Morela Hernandez)是弗吉尼亚大学的商学教授,他说:“种族偏见的招聘经理常常认为黑人求职者不应该获得较高的奖金,当他们要求更多的钱时就会发问(Oliver,XNUMX年)。 Founder and CEO of management consulting agency called Glass Ladder Group, Sabrina Garba, points out that “Black women are woefully undervalued…The problem is systemic prejudice and bias” (Oliver, XNUMX).管理咨询机构Glass Ladder Group的创始人兼首席执行官Sabrina Garba指出:“黑人妇女被严重低估了……问题是系统性的偏见和偏见”(Oliver,XNUMX年)。 Black women are taught to appreciate what they can get and expect nothing more;黑人妇女被教导要欣赏她们能得到的东西,而别无所求。 instilling this mindset can lead to doubt and hesitation when it comes to negotiating fair pay and asking for additional benefits.在谈判公平薪酬和要求其他福利时,灌输这种思维方式可能会导致怀疑和犹豫。 Clearly, this is something that requires significant change in order to eradicate discriminatory practices within the both the workplace and society at large.显然,为了在工作场所和整个社会范围内消除歧视性做法,这需要进行重大更改。

Advice for women on how to negotiate the gender pay gap is as follows: First, consider the value you hold and stand firmly by it.为妇女提供有关如何解决性别薪酬差距的建议,如下:首先,考虑您所拥有并坚持的价值观。 Think about how you can contribute and how it makes you stand out from other candidates.考虑一下您可以如何做出贡献以及如何使您在其他候选人中脱颖而出。 Second, do your research and think of a target salary;其次,进行研究并考虑目标工资; try to aim reasonably high in negotiations with an authority figure.尝试在与权威人士的谈判中争取较高的目标。 Third, it is crucial to ask for what you deserve rather than remaining silent.第三,至关重要的是要索要你应得的,而不是保持沉默。 Be confident and consider your experience, strengths, and your worth.要自信,并考虑您的经验,优势和价值。 Lastly, do not settle.最后,不要安定下来。 If what is being provided to you isn't fair or sufficient, don't be afraid to say “no” if the possibility of more opportune jobs or positions are out there (Messmer-Blust, 2016).如果提供给您的东西不公平或不够,如果那里有更多合适的工作或职位的可能性,请不要害怕说“不”(Messmer-Blust,2020年)。 Furthermore, seeking mentors that can help strengthen resumes, provide advice, and help you connect with hiring managers can greatly benefit career prospects (Oliver, 3.2).此外,寻找可以帮助加强简历,提供建议并帮助您与招聘经理建立联系的导师可以极大地帮助职业前景(Oliver,2020年)。 However, it can be difficult tracking down female mentors where they are vastly underrepresented, especially in STEM fields.但是,很难找到女性导师人数不足的地方,尤其是在STEM领域。 This especially holds true for Black female mentors who hold only XNUMX% of executive and senior management positions (Oliver, XNUMX).这对于只有XNUMX%的行政和高级管理职位的黑人女性导师尤其如此(Oliver,XNUMX年)。 This disappointing statistic makes it clear that companies need to hire more women in positions of power to further along fairness and equality in the workplace.这一令人失望的统计数据清楚地表明,公司需要雇用更多的女性担任领导职务,以进一步实现工作场所的公平与平等。

Whether in a STEM or non-STEM field, it is important that women realize their worth and advertise themselves in a way that emphasizes their skills and what they can bring to the table.无论在STEM领域还是非STEM领域,女性都必须以强调自己的技能以及可以带到餐桌上的方式来实现自己的价值并做广告,这一点很重要。 Women are taught to stay quiet about their needs and desires because it is deemed “selfish,” while men are encouraged to voice their concerns and be assertive about obtaining what they want.妇女被教导要对自己的需求和欲望保持沉默,因为这被认为是“自私的”,而男子则被鼓励表达自己的关切,并要自信地获得自己想要的东西。 Women in STEM are especially taught to appreciate whatever they are given, considering their fields are significantly dominated by men.考虑到STEM中的女性在男性中占主导地位,因此特别受教于女性,要欣赏她们所获得的一切。 These are distinctly condemnable ways of thinking, as it furthers inequality and allows the gender pay gap to persist.这些是明显可谴责的思维方式,因为它加剧了不平等现象,并使性别工资差距持续存在。 As perfectly stated, “If women can be inspired to join STEM majors, be supported in pursuing STEM careers after graduation, and be empowered with the legal tools they need to ensure they are compensated equally for equal work, we can start to close the STEM pay gap” (Women on Purpose, 2019).恰如其分地说:“如果可以激发女性加入STEM专业的机会,在毕业后获得支持以从事STEM职业,并获得赋予她们所需的法律工具的权力,以确保她们在平等工作中得到同等报酬,那么我们就可以关闭STEM薪酬差距''(Women in Purpose,XNUMX)。 It is unfair to say that women alone must change their negotiation strategies in order to obtain what they want and be treated with the respect they deserve;不公平地说,仅妇女就必须改变其谈判策略,以便获得自己想要的东西并受到应有的尊重。 society, too, must step up to the discriminatory systemic practices that they promote and encourage, and actively fight for women's advancement and positive change.社会也必须加紧努力,促进和鼓励歧视性的系统做法,并积极争取妇女的地位和积极变化。

参考文献

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(2019)。 Retrieved September 18, 2020, from检索自XNUMX年XNUMX月XNUMX日,从 https://www.womenonpurpose.ca/do-men-and-women-negotiate-differently/

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Messmer-Blust,A.(2016年)。 How to negotiate the gender pay gap.如何协商性别工资差距。 Retrieved from http://crosstalk.cell.com/blog/how-to-negotiate-the-gender-pay-gap取自http://crosstalk.cell.com/blog/how-to-negotiate-the-gender-pay-gap

Moss-Racusin,C.,Dovidio,J.,Brescoll,V.,Graham,M.,Handelsman,J.(2012年)。 Faculty's subtle gender biases favor male students.学院微妙的性别偏见偏向男学生。 诉讼中的国家科学院院士 2012年201211286月,10.1073; DOI:1211286109 / pnas.XNUMX

(2020)。 I went on 100 interviews in 8 months.我在18个月内接受了2020次采访。 This is what it's like to negotiate your salary as a black woman.这就是谈判您作为黑人妇女的工资时的感觉。 Retrieved September 2020, 03, from https://www.cnbc.com/31/XNUMX/XNUMX/what-its-like-to-negotiate-salary-as-a-black-woman-equal-pay-day.html于XNUMX年XNUMX月XNUMX日从https://www.cnbc.com/XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX/what-its-like-to-negotiate-salary-as-a-black-woman-equal-pay-day.html检索

Valentine, K. (2012).瓦伦丁·K(2012)。 Closing the Pay Gap in STEM Fields Starts With Education.缩小STEM领域的薪酬差距始于教育。 Retrieved from https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/general/news/10/26/43242/XNUMX/closing-the-pay-gap-in-stem-fields-starts-with-education/取自https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/general/news/XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX/closing-the-pay-gap-in-stem-fields-starts-with-education/